Characteristics Of Computer Pdf

Applications of Computers in Various Fields Computers have their application or utility everywhere. General Characteristics of Protozoa Protozoa are eukaryotic microorganisms. Hybrid computers are being used extensively in process control system where it is necessary to have a close representation with the physical world. Basically, languages can be divided into. Wave motion consists of a succession of crests and troughs which follow one another at equal intervals and move along at a constant speed. Introduction Is science any more special than any other subject in being less culture bound, and less subject to the usual differences between languages and consequent problems when translation is undertaken?. Can you tell which major components (hardware and software) are needed for computer graphics? Ans. The Fifth Generation Computers special characteristics are as follows: Use intelligent programming. This definition explains what a logic gate is and explains the seven basic logic gates: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, NAND, NOR, and XNOR. Introduction&Characteristics of Computers A computer is an electronic device that can perform a variety of operations in accordance with a set of instruc-tions called program. The CPU can output a byte of data within a single machine cycle but it may take the printer the equivalent of many machine cycles to actually print the character specified by the data byte. What characteristics of the audience members should you take into account when planning and presenting an introduction speech? 2. I would like to discuss the disadvantages. Main memory is as vital as the processor chip to a computer system. On many modern systems, USB is used for low performance devices such as these. It has been given positive connotations by those who advocate greater. has the listed characteristics (with emphasis on the generally). The characteristics of expert systems that make them different from conventional programming and traditional decision support tools. What Are the Characteristics of an Operating System? The defining characteristic of operating systems is the connection it provides between the hardware, the software and, in some cases, the user interface. Nanoseconds d. Given computers are programmed to do whatever individuals tell them to do, Andrew sees programming and computers as clarity, a veil behind all illusion and distrust. The 5 Characteristics of an Auditor The work of an auditor is to check the financial records of a company and ensure all cash related operations are running smoothly. n P2P computing is the sharing of computer resources and services by direct exchange between systems. Humans need information. In particular, two personality characteristics commonly ascribed to hackers, strong preference for rational decision-making processes and pronounced risk propensity, are examined and their influence on hacking activities and success is assessed. • LAN's enable the sharing of resources such as files or hardware devices that may be needed by multiple users • • Is limited in size, typically spanning a few hundred meters, and no more than a mile • Is fast, with speeds from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps. System Bus Types and Functions. With SmartDraw, You Can Create More than 70 Different Types of Diagrams, Charts, and Visuals. Many computer systems analysts have a bachelor's degree in computer science, information science, or management information systems. Optimization is a branch of OR which uses mathematical techniques such as linear and nonlinear programming to derive values for system variables that will optimize performance. Computer system are used in every walk of life to assist us in the various tasks we perform. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTERS Speed Electronic pulses travel at incredible speed and because the computer is electronic, its internal speed is virtually instantaneous. This is “The Characteristics of Business-to-Business (B2B) Markets”, section 4. And it was introduced in his co-athored book, User-Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction. It holds the data and instructions that the Central Processing Unit needs. But in reality, is computer programming hard? There’s no reason to assume learning to program will be a cakewalk—it will definitely take a lot of time and effort to get there. Super Computers: Super computers are the fastest, largest and costliest computers available. HTML Hyper Text Markup Language: ICO. The computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of the set of instructions (called program) and gives the result (output) and saves output for the future use. • The plotter is a computer printer for printing vector graphics • Plotters are used in applications such as computer-aided design such as diagrams, layouts, specification sheets and banners • The plotter is capable of producing color drawings in a matter of minutes • Plotters differ from printers in that they draw lines using a pen. Thus, if the light incident on a surface changes, the apparent color of the object may change. -Addresses are numeric quantities that are easy for computers to work with, but not for humans to remember. It will also examine computers from the perspective on how they influence society. a retransmission. Effective Program Management. they are connected with ethernet, fiber optic, or wifi to share data. Other emphasize the learning outcomes being addressed, while still others focus on learner attributes or educational theory or the teaching-learning process. With SmartDraw, You Can Create More than 70 Different Types of Diagrams, Charts, and Visuals. Speed: The computer is able to process the date and give the output in fractions of seconds such that required information is given to the user on time enabling the user to take. The Memory Hierarchy To this point in our study of systems, we have relied on a simple model of a computer system as a CPU that executes instructions and a memory system that holds instructions and data for the CPU. If your employees work with any type of multimedia on a regular basis, it will be even more important to invest in desktop computers or laptops built with the latest computer processors. Many people spend a. Characteristics of computers. An expert system is a computer program that simulates the thought process of a human expert to solve complex decision problems in a specific domain. A component supports a provided interface if the component con­ tains an implementation of all operations defined by that interface. If a computer is infected with Boot Sector Virus, when the computer is turned on, the virus launches immediately and is loaded into memory, enabling it to control the computer. The CPU moves data around the computer on pathways that interconnect it to all the other components on the motherboard. It functions as The University’s business and technology extension service. FREE online courses on the Basics of a Computer - Characteristics of Computers. It goes without saying that here at Iceni we are great fans of many computer programs but that we especially love the PDF!. December 2017 DocID026289 Rev 7 1/149 STM32F411xC STM32F411xE Arm® Cortex®-M4 32b MCU+FPU, 125 DMIPS, 512KB Flash,. Computer viruses can be classified by type of targeted file, longevity, self-concealment, and type of virus. It is used to store large amounts of data like Software or audio/video data. Network models are possibly still the most important of the special structures in linear programming. • If a deadlock occurs, it can be resolved if one car backs up (preempt. • Families and relationships (different types of family structures and characteristics of the families in the classroom community) • Evidence of meeting learning standards (by posting work samples) • Questions and answers of the children, teachers, and families about such topics as classroom routines (like how to wash your hands). Characteristics Of A Good Programming Language? There are some popular high-level programming languages,while there are others that could not become so popular in-spite of being very powerful. 8 Categories of Information 1. SYLLABUS 1. Characteristics of computers. Algorithms [email protected] Intro Problem Solving in Computer Science ©2011-12 McQuain Algorithms 1 Algorithms are the threads that tie together most of the subfields of computer science. The Micro-computers are specially designed for general usage like entertainment, education and work purposes. Input/Output (I/O) devices – These allow you to send information to the computer or get information from the computer. A typical desktop computer consists of a computer system unit, a keyboard, a mouse, and a monitor. PERCEIVING COLOR. Take advantage of every opportunity. First Generation of mordern computer (1946 - 1954) The period of first generation was 1946 - 1954. of steps ). To understand why computers are such an important part of our lives, let us look at some of its characteristics − Speed − Typically, a computer can carry out 3-4 million instructions per second. The computer was invented as a high-speed calculator. Introduction&Characteristics of Computers A computer is an electronic device that can perform a variety of operations in accordance with a set of instruc-tions called program. Information Technology (IT) is a generic term that covers the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of information. The raw treated water can be checked and analysed by studying and testing these characteristics as explained below:. The design of any computer requires that many of the hardware elements of the machine be located at specific addresses within the range of input/output ports of the computer. Characteristics > Used transistors instead of vacuum tubes for circuitry, which enabled computers of this generation to become smaller, faster, cheaper and more energy-efficient > Used magnetic core instead of magnetic drums as primary internal storage medium > Higher internal storage capacity compared to first generation computers. Organizations that choose to incur higher IT expenses presumably expect compensating benefits, such as the ability to respond more quickly and accurately to changes in their environment or to use less of other resources. Data is the enter language for a computer and data is the output language for human. We are in the midst of one of those upheavals now, one that will leave IT and networks looking very different (from even five years ago) by the time the transformation is complete. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. net Part Number: 200161-001 Jan 2006 Mike Shepherd Technical Partner Manager. For now, however, it might do us some good pay attention to these six common characteristics of Generation Z: Six Defining Characteristics of Generation Z. Computers have put millions of people out of work. Computer crime is defined here simply as a set of crimes in which com-puterized data or software play a major role. Computer Virus Fact Sheet What is a computer virus? Computer viruses have impacted a significant number of computers worldwide. 0, parallel, serial, IEEE1394 / firewire, RJ45 and 11, PS2 / MINI-DIN,. The basic difference between analog and digital computers is the type of data they process. The main characteristics of a computer are as follows: Human Effort. Computer file characteristics that include the type of file (e. Use high performance multi processor system. By working closely with training managers in many different companies and situations, we’ve found nine characteristics that predicate a successful training program. This post give you an idea of Characteristics of a computer. 8 Important Characteristics Of Adult Learners Adults are characterized by maturity, self-confidence, autonomy, solid decision-making, and are generally more practical, multi-tasking, purposeful, self-directed, experienced, and less open-minded and receptive to change. Applications of Computers in Various Fields Computers have their application or utility everywhere. Ten Characteristics of an Effective Tutor Take a look at the list you created in Module 1 Assignment #3 that should now be in your Tutoring Handbook. Let us identify the major characteristics of computer. Teachers’ Characteristics Teachers’ characteristics (e. Characteristics Of A Good Programming Language? There are some popular high-level programming languages,while there are others that could not become so popular in-spite of being very powerful. C is a structured programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1973 at Bell Laboratories. Characteristics Synchronizes transisions with a clock Input should remain stable while clock is active Transision at the wrong time can cause instability – Changes while clock is active – Changes simultaneous with clock. Computer Lab Worksheet Characteristics of an Action Potential Purpose To explore some of the conditions that promote or inhibit the ability of neurons to generate an action potential. Also, the image will not be rendered as crisp or as smoothly in the case of video. LAYOUT AND DESIGN by: Jamie Forbes Communications Specialist, SBTDC. This is how the term was derived for use in computer realm. ISO A4 for notebook chassis). A laptop is a personal computer that can be easily carried to a number of locations. Cultural Adaptability. what is a printer, different types of printers technology, Read the difference between various type of printers like Daisy wheel printers, Dot matrix printers, inkjet printers, Laser printers. How to use characteristic in a sentence. If you are a designer and wish to come up with a superlative user interface design and wonder as to what all should your interface design revolve around. GerbingComputer Components: CPU Characteristics 12 CPU Clock Speed Number of cycles per second I Each computer instruction requires a xed number of cycles. It will also examine computers from the perspective on how they influence society. The major characteristics of a computer are high speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and storage. The computers are therefore also referred to as data processors Therefore a computer can now be defined as a fast and accurate data processing system that accepts data, performs various operations on the data, has the capability to store the data and produce the results on the basis of detailed step by step instructions given to it. 4 Bus Topology Does not use any specialized network Difficult to troubleshoot. • LAN's enable the sharing of resources such as files or hardware devices that may be needed by multiple users • • Is limited in size, typically spanning a few hundred meters, and no more than a mile • Is fast, with speeds from 10 Mbps to 10 Gbps. Characteristic of a Computer Home. Form characteristics are often extremely important mediators of the content elements” (p. Nanoseconds d. It is one of the most popular computer languages today because of its structure, high-level abstraction, machine independent feature. refers to the computer’s physical mass, whereas power refers to the computer’s speed and the complexity of calculations it can carry out. Image characteristics of computer tomography urography in pelvic lipomatosis 299 Int J Clin Exp Med 2014;7(1):296-299 above. You do need to have a reasonable knowledge of computer technology and a good background understanding of industrial processes. Teachers' Characteristics Teachers' characteristics (e. Computer is a multi-tasking programmable electronic machine which performs the calculations and processes information with astonishing speed. First Generation Computers (1950's). Characteristics of Computer Virus Computers can not be separated from the virus, all our activitiesboth copy data, surfing the internet, as well as nancepin flash cancause the computer virus. Since microcomputers originally designed for personal use they are also refereed to as personal computer or PCs. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. What is a computer? a. Here’s a simple way to tell one from the other: Computers need data. For your convenience, the List of Personality Characteristics is repeated on the order form for the Personal Decorating Analysis, along with simple instructions for selecting your personal traits. Intel's first microprocessor, the 4004, was conceived by Ted Hoff and Stanley Mazor. Computer file types by extension. There exist several types of general purpose computer systems. Each and every instruction should be precise and unambiguous i. The internal bus carries data within the motherboard. Computer systems may be classified into the following groups: 1 - The supercomputers are extremely fast computers that are used in scientific research for their ability to do large amount of calculations and store large amount of data. The development of computers has followed different steps in the terminology used and these steps of technological differences are called as GENERATIONS in computer terminology. User characteristics Constraints Assumptions and Dependencies 3 Specific Requirements Appendices Index Identifies the product, & application domain Describes contents and structure of the remainder of the SRS Describes all external interfaces: system, user, hardware, software; also operations and site adaptation, and hardware constraints Summary of major. If your employees work with any type of multimedia on a regular basis, it will be even more important to invest in desktop computers or laptops built with the latest computer processors. Understanding games—whether computer games, card games, board games, or sports—by analyzing certain common traits. If you still have not gone well past the virus then the onlyway is to reinstall. Watch Queue Queue. § It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program). They are used in various fields. Systems have interconnectivity: the various parts of a system have functional as well as structural relationships between each other. The digital computer stores data in discrete units and performs arithmetical and logical operations at very high speed. less so on computers. establish a safe, supportive, and positive learning environment for all students. In fact, some students may have developed computer proficiency beyond their teachers. A computer case (also known as a computer chassis, cabinet, box, tower, enclosure, housing, system unit or simply case) is the enclosure that contains most of the components of a computer (usually excluding the display, keyboard and mouse). Introduction: A Common Language for Researchers Research in the social sciences is a diverse topic. Maskew Analytical Methods, Inc. A quality school will not allow this type of behavior to undermine the basic goal of teaching students. These computers are the cheapest among the other three types of computers. These approaches are specified in various software engineering books and research papers, always with the connotations of predictability, precision, mitigated risk and professionalism. Characteristics of good quality information can be defined as an acronym ACCURATE. What is a computer? a. An expert system is a computer program that simulates the thought process of a human expert to solve complex decision problems in a specific domain. , data •Data type: –Numeric data –Character data –Graphic data –Sound •To process a particular set of data, the computer must be given an appropriate set of instructions called a program. auxiliary memory (also called physical memory or external memory) that stores information over the long term, including after the computer is turned off. In addition, using computer-based technology is desirable for the following reasons: • Drill and practice tasks can be less monotonous on a computer than with pencil and paper. Both these memories vary in the speed, cost and capacity. Maskew Analytical Methods, Inc. In our simple model, the memory system is a linear array of bytes, and the CPU can access each memory location in a. You also have access to any news station in the world and can keep up-to-date with all of the latest news, weather, and stories around the world. Computers are versatile. NIST Computer Security Division (CSD) Keywords NIST SP 800-145, The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing, Cloud Computing, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, On-demand Self Service, Reserve Pooling, Rapid Elasticity, Measured Service, Software as a Service, Platform as a Service, Infrastructure as a Service. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: It responds to a specific set of instructions in a proper manner. Main memory is as vital as the processor chip to a computer system. Some characteristics: OSon each computer knowsabout the othercom-puters OS on different computers generally the same Services are generally (transparently) distributed across computers Kernel Kernel Kernel Machine A Machine B Machine C Network Distributed operating system services Distributed applications 01 – 14 Introduction/1. Home » Blog » 5 Characteristics of a Professional. The display may be optional, depending on use. As you move the mouse, the pointer on the display. It is intended that this list become a focal point around which the design of new technology can revolve, in order to anticipate the social consequences of a new product and mitigate any potential negative effects it may have on society. The brain of a computer. Radio waves have characteristics common to other forms of wave motion such as ocean waves. The History of Computing in the History of Technology Michael S. Paris When people think "computers," usually it's something like a laptop or your office computer that comes to mind. SMART Characteristics of Good Objectives by Phil Bartle, PhD Workshop Handout An objective is more specific than a goal; in what ways? A Good Objective is SMART. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. In this section we summarize key characteristics of Internet-based surveys—that is, surveys using the Web and e-mail as a response mode—as documented in the literature. Speed- It can perform millions of instructions and even more per second. Object Moved This document may be found here. There are many computer uses in different fields of work. indd 40 11/26/12 10:13:22 AM. Optimization is a branch of OR which uses mathematical techniques such as linear and nonlinear programming to derive values for system variables that will optimize performance. Hence, a program should be developed in such a way that it ensures proper functionality of the computer. The Social. Information needs to be of high quality to be useful and accurate. Development and Characteristics of 20 16% Learners II. This course is an introduction for non-computer science students (see Introduction to Computer Science for computer science students). ANCOVA was used in data analysis. Paris When people think “computers,” usually it’s something like a laptop or your office computer that comes to mind. , from the continuum flow regime up to the free-molecular regime. This paper discusses several characteristics of computer technology that may be at the center of the effects. Gips, DiMattia, & Gips (2004) indicated that the first disadvantage of computer and its assisted language learning programs is that they will increase educational costs and harm the equity of education. The most successful companies share five core characteristics. Data storage is essential function of the computer. 3 Goals of this Lecture Help you learn (or refresh your memory) about: • The binary, hexadecimal, and octal number systems • Finite representation of unsigned integers. Related Links. Teachers may encounter students who have already acquired computer skills. The real meaning of communication is getting the receiver and the sender tuned together for a particular message. What Is a Computer Network? On the most fundamental level, a computer network is an interconnected collection of. The Micro-computers are specially designed for general usage like entertainment, education and work purposes. It takes only few seconds for the calculations that we takes hours to compute. workload characteristics, and physical workstation characteristics. , automated assembly line) Network of branch office computers - Information system to. Common topologies include. This may partly explain why highly encoded instruction sets have proven to be as useful as RISC designs in modern computers. Thus, it gives us ample time to use it in matters involving creativity & judgment. Competitive Exams: Computers MCQs (Practice-Test 1 of 21) Previous. The school's leaders should be clear about th goals for each department and work with the department heads to create a collaborative environment where politics are kept to a minimum. , from the continuum flow regime up to the free-molecular regime. -Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node; each node has a unique address. 825 Techniques in Artificial Intelligence If you're going to teach or take an AI course, it's useful to ask: "What's AI?" It's a lot of different things to a lot of different people. AMD and Intel now make literally scores of different processor models. When considering the use of ICT for development, conventional wisdom is that even if hardware is free (e. the following may be considered to be the characteristics of an algorithm : 1. Computer crime is defined here simply as a set of crimes in which com-puterized data or software play a major role. 6 Types of Systems 1. This course is an introduction for non-computer science students (see Introduction to Computer Science for computer science students). Hard Drive. 4 Characteristics of a System 1. Even the model names are confusing. Accuracy − Computers exhibit a very high degree of accuracy. Fifth Generation (1986 -till date) : Super computer The characteristics of computers that have made them so powerful and universally useful are speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and storage capacity. Leadership has to start at the top but it isn't great unless it spreads throughout the organization. They are Cynical. Computer is a versatile machine. * mainframes taking up entire rooms * punched cards I/O * electrostatic and mercury delay line memory, beginning use of core Second generation — 1956-1963 *. Errors that may occur are usually due to inaccurate. The display may be optional, depending on use. Speed; Computers work at an incredible speed. System Dependency: Using a computer solution makes the user to depend fully on the com­puter system and necessitates the availability of computer at all times. It is the place in a computer where the operating system, application programs and the data in current use are kept temporarily so that they can be accessed by the computer's processor. • Computer Science Student Resource Site: contains a number of links and docu-ments that students may find useful in their ongoing computer science education. Instead this course is a gentler, lighter survey course without delving too much into technical details. Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options (the ‘‘booklet’’) is amended as provided below. "Elements of Sound Recording" by Frayne and Wolf (1949) is the second historical sound-recording text. Supercomputer, any of a class of extremely powerful computers. CRT Monitors. Characteristics which affect the behavior of software systems The platform the individual nodes ("computer", "processor") communication between two nodes organization of the system (network of nodes) and its characteristics capacity of nodes. While Neuendorf argues that media content analysis is quantitative only, Shoemaker and. Both these memories vary in the speed, cost and capacity. The two main types of low clouds include stratus, which develop horizontally, and. Circuit design, control signals, memory types. In every computer language variables provide a means of accessing the data stored in memory. In both cases, light is reflected off of an object and passes through a. The word microcomputer means "small computer". Start studying 5 Characteristics of Living Things (Organisms). One thought on “ Types of Errors in Programming ” priya October 31, 2017. Using LSI and VLSI technology thousands of transistors are integrated on a small silicon chip. For now, however, it might do us some good pay attention to these six common characteristics of Generation Z: Six Defining Characteristics of Generation Z. Commonly it can store 650 MB / 700 MB/ 750 MB data. ISO A4 for notebook chassis). There are totally five generations of computers till today. It can be a question, a set of directions or a statement with an embedded blank. An expert system is a computer program that simulates the thought process of a human expert to solve complex decision problems in a specific domain. This is information on a product in full production. Characteristics of Computer. So a computer is normally considered to be a calculating device that performs arithmetic operations at enormous speed. An algorithm has following characteristics: 1. Computer can also be defined in terms of functions it can perform. Computer Languages Timeline Below, you can see the preview of the Computer Languages History (move on the white zone to get a bigger image): If you want to print this timeline, you can freely download one of the following PDF files:. Some definitions of architecture define it as describing the capabilities and programming model of a computer but not a particular implementation. Definition of Computer What is a Computer? A computer is a programmable machine. Development and Characteristics of 20 16% Learners II. Datapath - manipulates the data coming through the processor. Computer Networks (4th edition), Andrew Tanenbaum, Prentice Hall 4. To understand the value of project management, it is necessary to understand the fundamental nature of a project; the core characteristics of project management processes; how success is evaluated, the roles, responsibilities, and activities of a. First Generation Computers -1942 to 1954 2. It will get attacked at some point be prepared when it does. In my opinion what makes an IT pro successful/unsuccessful is how well they can work in a certain environment. CENSUS BUREAU census. Main memory is as vital as the processor chip to a computer system. Other computer components may have registers of their own that are used in their control. I could have written more but I think it will be redundant because the first three characteristics actually sums up the characteristics of a Systems Analyst. It is commonly used by web servers, it enables user to upload, edit or delete files from websites using FTP clients. Informa-tion technology is a modern term that describes this combination of traditional computer and com-munication technologies. Analog computers process analog, i. SpeedAs you know computer can work very fast. The former strategy uses. The efficiency is determined by how productive a computer is. Loading Close. Imaging characteristics can help predict diagnosis and specifically appreciate the pro-gression of pelvic lipomatosis. Informa-tion technology is a modern term that describes this combination of traditional computer and com-munication technologies. The history of the computer goes back several decades however and there are five definable generations of computers. This explains that there is a clear difference between drawing and painting. • Copies of tables from the book in PDF format. troubleshooting and diagnosing desktop computer issues, in a large network environment (500 users or more). Others would say it started in May 1949 with the introduction of EDSAC, the first stored program computer. Even the model names are confusing. Let us identify the major characteristics of computer. 5 Elements of a System 1. Computers are versatile. Input device Translate data from form that humans understand to one that the computer can work with. Mahoney Program in History of Science Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (Annals of the History of Computing 10(1988), 113-125) After surveying the current state of the literature in the history of computing, this. How to use characteristic in a sentence. Network models are possibly still the most important of the special structures in linear programming. 2 Characteristics of Computers The characteristics which make computer make indispensable are 1. The purpose of this book is to help you use and understand information technology. Supercomputer, any of a class of extremely powerful computers. copied) from the disk into the computers RAM (Random Access Memory), as and when. There are some hardware setups required for Computer network like network cables, distributors, routers, internal and external network cards. The report by the National Center for Education Statistics. Well known manufacturers of Micro-computer are Dell, Apple, Samsung, Sony & Toshiba. For guidance on describing and encoding the attributes of audio recording carriers, see "Supplement 1" of the Music Library. HOUGH Stanford University Background: Alternative certification plays a central role in the production of new teachers in many states, yet little is known about the characteristics of an effective program. Symmetric Characteristics of Traditional Hawaiian Patterns: a Computer Model Abstract Most of Hawaiian quilts, fabrics and traditional handicrafts are lavishly decorated with patterns. The computer was invented as a high-speed calculator. The Computer System A contemporary computer system consists of a central processing unit, primary stor-. 9-10) Read Bain. The purpose of this book is to help you use and understand information technology. Furthermore, it will only do. We purchase Software, movies, dramas, lectures, books, wallpapers and other data on Cd-Rom. In a life-cycle assessment (LCA), a "functional unit" is defined to delineate the functional characteristics of the products being evaluated and allow them to be. History and Evolution of Computers. Before learning about evolution of computers, first let us know the definition of a computer. While Neuendorf argues that media content analysis is quantitative only, Shoemaker and.